What happens to boiling water by -41°C ?
What happens to boiling water by -41°C ?
Science has been corrupted by the corporate agenda for a long time. We all knew or suspected this, didn’t we? Lou
Leading academic journals are distorting the scientific process and represent a “tyranny” that must be broken, according to a Nobel prize winner who has declared a boycott on the publications.
Randy Schekman, a US biologist who won the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine this year and receives his prize in Stockholm on Tuesday, said his lab would no longer send research papers to the top-tier journals, Nature, Cell and Science.
Schekman said pressure to publish in “luxury” journals encouraged researchers to cut corners and pursue trendy fields of science instead of doing more important work. The problem was exacerbated, he said, by editors who were not active scientists but professionals who favoured studies that were likely to make a splash.
The prestige of appearing in the major journals has led the Chinese Academy of Sciences to pay successful authors the equivalent of $30,000 (£18,000). Some researchers made half of their income through such “bribes”, Schekman said in an interview.
Writing in the Guardian, Schekman raises serious concerns over the journals’ practices and calls on others in the scientific community to take action.
“I have published in the big brands, including papers that won me a Nobel prize. But no longer,” he writes. “Just as Wall Street needs to break the hold of bonus culture, so science must break the tyranny of the luxury journals.”
Schekman is the editor of eLife, an online journal set up by the Wellcome Trust. Articles submitted to the journal – a competitor to Nature, Cell and Science – are discussed by reviewers who are working scientists and accepted if all agree. The papers are free for anyone to read.
Schekman criticises Nature, Cell and Science for artificially restricting the number of papers they accept, a policy he says stokes demand “like fashion designers who create limited-edition handbags.” He also attacks a widespread metric called an “impact factor”, used by many top-tier journals in their marketing.
A journal’s impact factor is a measure of how often its papers are cited, and is used as a proxy for quality. But Schekman said it was “toxic influence” on science that “introduced a distortion”. He writes: “A paper can become highly cited because it is good science – or because it is eye-catching, provocative, or wrong.”
Daniel Sirkis, a postdoc in Schekman’s lab, said many scientists wasted a lot of time trying to get their work into Cell, Science and Nature. “It’s true I could have a harder time getting my foot in the door of certain elite institutions without papers in these journals during my postdoc, but I don’t think I’d want to do science at a place that had this as one of their most important criteria for hiring anyway,” he told the Guardian.
Sebastian Springer, a biochemist at Jacobs University in Bremen, who worked with Schekman at the University of California, Berkeley, said he agreed there were major problems in scientific publishing, but no better model yet existed. “The system is not meritocratic. You don’t necessarily see the best papers published in those journals. The editors are not professional scientists, they are journalists which isn’t necessarily the greatest problem, but they emphasise novelty over solid work,” he said.
Springer said it was not enough for individual scientists to take a stand. Scientists are hired and awarded grants and fellowships on the basis of which journals they publish in. “The hiring committees all around the world need to acknowledge this issue,” he said.
Philip Campbell, editor-in-chief at Nature, said the journal had worked with the scientific community for more than 140 years and the support it had from authors and reviewers was validation that it served their needs.
“We select research for publication in Nature on the basis of scientific significance. That in turn may lead to citation impact and media coverage, but Nature editors aren’t driven by those considerations, and couldn’t predict them even if they wished to do so,” he said.
“The research community tends towards an over-reliance in assessing research by the journal in which it appears, or the impact factor of that journal. In a survey Nature Publishing Group conducted this year of over 20,000 scientists, the three most important factors in choosing a journal to submit to were: the reputation of the journal; the relevance of the journal content to their discipline; and the journal’s impact factor. My colleagues and I have expressed concerns about over-reliance on impact factors many times over the years, both in the pages of Nature and elsewhere.”
Monica Bradford, executive editor at Science, said: “We have a large circulation and printing additional papers has a real economic cost … Our editorial staff is dedicated to ensuring a thorough and professional peer review upon which they determine which papers to select for inclusion in our journal. There is nothing artificial about the acceptance rate. It reflects the scope and mission of our journal.”
Emilie Marcus, editor of Cell, said: “Since its launch nearly 40 years ago, Cell has focused on providing strong editorial vision, best-in-class author service with informed and responsive professional editors, rapid and rigorous peer-review from leading academic researchers, and sophisticated production quality. Cell’s raison d’etre is to serve science and scientists and if we fail to offer value for both our authors and readers, the journal will not flourish; for us doing so is a founding principle, not a luxury.”
• This article was amended on 10 December 2013 to include a response from Cell editor Emilie Marcus, which arrived after the initial publication deadline.
Ben Goertzel is an eccentric genius that you will get to like once you get into his quirky mind. You will want one of those little prototype robots. You will be amazed at how far we are into the future already. We have robotic machines that can engage us? They appear to think on their own. Ben is more optimistic about the future. Hugo De Garis, the other A.I. genius, is glad he is living today. He believes his grand kids will have to deal with the coming A.I. Apocalypse. It’s inevitable. We do not have enough stuff to worry about, do we?
Remember “Terminator”? No one thought the novel 1984 would become reality neither. Fascinating, exhilarating at times, and perhaps a terrifying glimpse of a futuristic A.I. nightmare. Lou
There is not an energy crisis, there is a scientific suppression crisis. Countless inventors and inventions (covered in this movie) would free us from the bonds that hold us enslaved to the energy cartels. But these inventions have been suppressed by the powers that be so that a few business men can profit at the expense of the entire planet.
Dec 9, 2013
A book titled “Biocentrism: How Life and Consciousness Are the Keys to Understanding the Nature of the Universe“, published in the USA, has stirred up the Internet, because it contained a notion that life does not end when the body dies, and it can last forever. The author of this publication, scientist Robert Lanza has no doubts that this is possible.
Lanza is an expert in regenerative medicine and scientific director of Advanced Cell Technology Company. Before he has been known for his extensive research which dealt with stem cells, he was also famous for several successful experiments on cloning endangered animal species.
But not so long ago, the scientist became involved with physics, quantum mechanics and astrophysics. This explosive mixture has given birth to the new theory of biocentrism, which the professor has been preaching ever since.
The theory implies that death simply does not exist. It is an illusion which arises in the minds of people. It exists because people identify themselves with their body. They believe that the body is going to perish, sooner or later, thinking their consciousness will disappear too. In fact, consciousness exists outside of constraints of time and space. It is able to be anywhere: in the human body and outside of it. That fits well with the basic postulates of quantum mechanics science, according to which a certain particle can be present anywhere and an event can happen according to several, sometimes countless, ways.
Lanza believes that multiple universes can exist simultaneously. These universes contain multiple ways for possible scenarios to occur. In one universe, the body can be dead. And in another it continues to exist, absorbing consciousness which migrated into this universe.
This means that a dead person while traveling through the same tunnel ends up not in hell or in heaven, but in a similar world he or she once inhabited, but this time alive. And so on, infinitely.
This hope-instilling, but extremely controversial theory by Lanza has many unwitting supporters, not just mere mortals who want to live forever, but also some well-known scientists. These are the physicists and astrophysicists who tend to agree with existence of parallel worlds and who suggest the possibility of multiple universes. Multiverse (multi-universe) is a so-called scientific concept, which they defend. They believe that no physical laws exist which would prohibit the existence of parallel worlds.
The first one was a science fiction writer H.G. Wells who proclaimed in 1895 in his story “The Door in the Wall”. And after 62 years, this idea was developed by Hugh Everett in his graduate thesis at the Princeton University. It basically posits that at any given moment the universe divides into countless similar instances. And the next moment, these “newborn” universes split in a similar fashion. In some of these worlds you may be present: reading this article in one universe, or watching TV in another.
The triggering factor for these multiplying worlds is our actions, explained Everett. If we make some choices, instantly one universe splits into two with different versions of outcomes.
In the 1980s, Andrei Linde, scientist from the Lebedev’s Institute of physics, developed the theory of multiple universes. He is now a professor at Stanford University.
Linde explained: Space consists of many inflating spheres, which give rise to similar spheres, and those, in turn, produce spheres in even greater numbers, and so on to infinity. In the universe, they are spaced apart. They are not aware of each other’s existence. But they represent parts of the same physical universe.
The fact that our universe is not alone is supported by data received from the Planck space telescope. Using the data, scientists have created the most accurate map of the microwave background, the so-called cosmic relic background radiation, which has remained since the inception of our universe. They also found that the universe has a lot of dark recesses represented by some holes and extensive gaps.
Theoretical physicist Laura Mersini-Houghton from the North Carolina University with her colleagues argue: the anomalies of the microwave background exist due to the fact that our universe is influenced by other universes existing nearby. And holes and gaps are a direct result of attacks on us by neighboring universes.
So, there is abundance of places or other universes where our soul could migrate after death, according to the theory of neo-biocentrism. But does the soul exist?
Professor Stuart Hameroff from the University of Arizona has no doubts about the existence of eternal soul. As recently as last year, he announced that he has found evidence that consciousness does not perish after death.
According to Hameroff, the human brain is the perfect quantum computer and the soul or consciousness is simply information stored at the quantum level. It can be transferred, following the death of the body; quantum information represented by consciousness merges with our universe and exist there indefinitely. The biocentrism expert Lanza proves that the soul migrates to another universe. That is the main difference from his other colleagues.
Sir Roger Penrose, a famous British physicist and expert in mathematics from Oxford, supports this theory, and he has also found traces of contact with other universes. Together, the scientists are developing quantum theory to explain the phenomenon of consciousness. They believe that they found carriers of consciousness, the elements that accumulate information during life, and after death of the body they “drain” consciousness somewhere else. These elements are located inside protein-based microtubules (neuronal microtubules), which previously have been attributed a simple role of reinforcement and transport channeling inside a living cell. Based on their structure, microtubules are best suited to function as carriers of quantum properties inside the brain. That is mainly because they are able to retain quantum states for a long time, meaning they can function as elements of a quantum computer.
by and i on truthaddictsanon.blogspot.co.at
December 09, 2006
Several years ago an article was published by Scientific American titled “Television Addiction Is No Mere Metaphor“. It basically states that TV viewing is addictive, and people who watch excessive amounts of TV (as most American’s currently do–our national average is 4+ hours per day) exhibit the same behaviors as those addicted to physical substances, gambling, sex, etc. Indeed the shift from left- to right-brain dominance that television viewers undergo releases endorphins into the nervous system. More interesting to me in that article was the mention of a 1986 study done by Byron Reeves of Stanford University, Esther Thorson of the University of Missouri and their colleagues that looks into the brain-wave patterns of people before, during, and after television viewing. I also found talk about a study done by Herbert Krugman, a psychologist and manager of public-opinion research at GE (owner of NBC) which monitored human brain waves to discover what the effects were when watching television.
|“These opiates are structurally identical to heroin and opium and just like the drugs themselves, endorphins are habit forming and addictive. Krugman observed that whilst watching television, right brain activity is at least twice as potent as left brain activity. As with many other scientists, psychophisiologist, Dr. Thomas Mulholland, arrived at the same conclusions, notably that alpha waves appear just after thirty seconds of television viewing and that whilst watching television the viewer’s brain falls into a virtual trance.”|
Seems that television viewing moves the brain from a beta-wave state, where it is active in cognitive processing, deep into the alpha-wave state where it is passive, free-associating, no cognitive activity to speak of. Basically, what this tells us is that during television viewing, your cognitive mind is more-or-less turned off and you have no process of rational judgment or filters between what you are seeing and hearing on the TV and what enters your subconscious mind.
Here’s another quote from “The Nature of Television”:
|“all relevant research points to the fact that whilst watching television the brain is in a similar state as when under hypnosis.”|
So our adults and kids are sitting in front of the TV for 4 hours a day, brains in an alpha-state, susceptible to subconsciously absorbing anything they see and hear. Images are flashing in front of the brain, scenes are changing every 5 seconds, celebrity worship is implanted, programmed news is implanted, desire for intrinsically useless products is implanted, political opinions are implanted, gender, ethnic, religious, and racial stereotypes are implanted, etc., etc.
It’s not just a waste of your time, it’s putting you in a trance and programming your subconscious mind. The television is called the idiot box for a reason. Read the above research again… The General Electric Corporation, owner of a major media network, NBC, and a large cog in the military-industrial complex, funded a study in the 60s that shows that the television is a hypnotic device.
For fuck’s sake, turn the fucking thing off.
“The fact that TV is a source not actively or critically attended to was made dramatically evident in the late 1960s by an experiment that rocked the world of political and product advertising and forever changed the ways in which the television medium would be used. The results of the experiment still reverberate through the industry long after its somewhat primitive methods have been perfected.
“In November 1969, a researcher named Herbert Krugman, who later became manager of public-opinion research at General Electric headquarters in Connecticut, decided to try to discover what goes on physiologically in the brain of a person watching TV. He elicited the co-operation of a twenty-two-year-old secretary and taped a single electrode to the back of her head. The wire from this electrode connected to a Grass Model 7 Polygraph, which in turn interfaced with a Honeywell 7600 computer and a CAT 400B computer.
“Flicking on the TV, Krugman began monitoring the brain-waves of the subject What he found through repeated trials was that within about thirty seconds, the brain-waves switched from predominantly beta waves, indicating alert and conscious attention, to predominantly alpha waves, indicating an unfocused, receptive lack of attention: the state of aimless fantasy and daydreaming below the threshold of consciousness. When Krugman’s subject turned to reading through a magazine, beta waves reappeared, indicating that conscious and alert attentiveness had replaced the daydreaming state.
“What surprised Krugman, who had set out to test some McLuhanesque hypotheses about the nature of TV-viewing, was how rapidly the alpha-state emerged. Further research revealed that the brain’s left hemisphere, which processes information logically and analytically, tunes out while the person is watching TV. This tuning-out allows the right hemisphere of the brain, which processes information emotionally and noncritically, to function unimpeded. ‘It appears,’ wrote Krugman in a report of his findings, ‘that the mode of response to television is more or less constant and very different from the response to print. That is, the basic electrical response of the brain is clearly to the medium and not to content difference…. [Television is] a communication medium that effortlessly transmits huge quantities of information not thought about at the time of exposure.’
“Soon, dozens of agencies were engaged in their own research into the television-brain phenomenon and its implications. The findings led to a complete overhaul in the theories, techniques, and practices that had structured the advertising industry and, to an extent, the entire television industry. The key phrase in Krugman’s findings was that TV transmits ‘information not thought about at the time of exposure.’” [p.p. 69-70]
“As Herbert Krugman noted in the research that transformed the industry, we do not consciously or rationally attend to the material resonating with our unconscious depths at the time of transmission. Later, however, when we encounter a store display, or a real-life situation like one in an ad, or a name on a ballot that conjures up our television experience of the candidate, a wealth of associations is triggered. Schwartz explains: ‘The function of a display in the store is to recall the consumer’s experience of the product in the commercial…. You don’t ask for a product: The product asks for you! That is, a person’s recall of a commercial is evoked by the product itself, visible on a shelf or island display, interacting with the stored data in his brain.’ Just as in Julian Jaynes’s ancient cultures, where the internally heard speech of the gods was prompted by props like the corpse of a chieftain or a statue, so, too, our internalized media echoes are triggered by products, props, or situations in the environment.
“As real-life experience is increasingly replaced by the mediated ‘experience’ of television-viewing, it becomes easy for politicians and market-researchers of all sorts to rely on a base of mediated mass experience that can be evoked by appropriate triggers. The TV ‘world’ becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy: the mass mind takes shape, its participants acting according to media-derived impulses and believing them to be their own personal volition arising out of their own desires and needs. In such a situation, whoever controls the screen controls the future, the past, and the present.” [p. 82, Joyce Nelson, THE PERFECT MACHINE; ., 1992, 800-253-3605; ISBN 0-86571-235-2 ]
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License.
The Nigerian man had been lost at sea after his tugboat, the AHT Jascon-4, suddenly capsized and sank 100 feet below the surface of the ocean. Okene, a cook, was trapped in a four-foot bathroom with no way to signal for help, no food, no water—nothing, for three long days.
This all happened months ago, but the whole story is finally emerging. First, the video of the rescue:
December 4, 2013
His miraculous survival was filmed six months ago by rescuing divers who had come to collect bodies and instead saw Okene’s desperate, outreached hand seeking help. This week, the video has gone viral, bringing international attention to the power of an air bubble.
So how’d that bubble last so long?
Eric Hexdall, a nurse and clinical director of diving medicine at the Duke Center for Hyperbaric Medicine and Environmental Physiology, estimates that in an area of about 13.5 cubic meters—roughly the size of the air bubble Okene was trapped in—a person has about 56 hours before carbon dioxide toxicity sets in.
“If you’re trapped in something like that, your carbon dioxide levels will build to a toxic level before you use up the oxygen,” Hexdall said, emphasizing that carbon dioxide would be the first problem Okene would have faced, before running out of oxygen.
Dr. Josef Allen Hynek ( May 1, 1910 – April 27, 1986 ) was Chairman of Department of Astronomy Northwestern University , professor, and ufologist. He is perhaps best remembered for his UFO research. Hynek acted as scientific adviser to UFO studies undertaken by the U.S. Air Force under three consecutive names: Project Sign (1947-1949), Project Grudge (1949-1952), and Project Blue Book (1952 to 1969). For decades afterwards, he conducted his own independent UFO research, and is widely considered the father of the concept of scientific analysis of both reports and, especially, trace evidence purportedly left by UFOs. Also his book called The Ufo’s Experience a Scientific Inquiry 1972
Nov 29, 2013
A team of European astronomers has discovered a second solar system, the closest parallel to our own solar system yet found. It includes seven exoplanets orbiting a star with the small rocky planets close to their host star and the gas giant planets further away. The system was hidden within the wealth of data from the Kepler Space Telescope.
KOI-351 is “the first system with a significant number of planets (not just two or three, where random fluctuations can play a role) that shows a clear hierarchy like the solar system — with small, probably rocky, planets in the interior and gas giants in the (exterior),” Dr. Juan Cabrera, of the Institute of Planetary Research at the German Aerospace Center, told Universe Today.
Three of the seven planets orbiting KOI-351 were detected earlier this year, and have periods of 59, 210 and 331 days — similar to the periods of Mercury, Venus and Earth.
But the orbital periods of these planets vary by as much as 25.7 hours. This is the highest variation detected in an exoplanet’s orbital period so far, hinting that there are more planets than meets the eye.
In closely packed systems, the gravitational pull of nearby planets can cause the acceleration or deceleration of a planet along its orbit. These “tugs” cause the variations in orbital periods.
They also provide indirect evidence of further planets. Using advanced computer algorithms, Cabrera and his team detected four new planets orbiting KOI-351.
But these planets are much closer to their host star than Mercury is to our Sun, with orbital periods of 7, 9, 92 and 125 days. The system is extremely compact — with the outermost planet having an orbital period less than the Earth’s. Yes, the entire system orbits within 1 AU.
While astronomers have discovered over 1000 exoplanets, this is the first solar system analogue detected to date. Not only are there seven planets, but they display the same architecture — rocky small planets orbiting close to the sun and gas giants orbiting further away — as our own solar system.
Most exoplanets are strikingly different from the planets in our own solar system. “We find planets in any order, at any distance, of any size; even planetary classes that don’t exist in the solar system,” Cabrera said.
Several theories including planet migration and planet-planet scattering have been proposed to explain these differences. But the fact of the matter is planet formation is still poorly understood.
“We don’t know yet why this system formed this way, but we have the feeling that this is a key system in understanding planetary formation in general and the formation of the solar system in particular,” Cabrera told Universe Today.
The team is extremely hopeful that the upcoming mission PLATO will receive funding. If so, it will allow them to take a second look at this system — determining the radius and mass of each planet and even analyzing their compositions.
Follow-up observations will not only allow astronomers to determine how this solar system formed, it will provide hints as to how our own solar system formed.
The paper has been accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal and is available for download here.
Winner Best short film at the Cinema Science film festival 2010.
Where and what is nano? How will it shape our future? Nanoscience is the study of phenomena and manipulation of materials at the nanoscale, where properties differ significantly from those at a larger scale. The strange world of nanoscience – it can take you into atoms and beyond the stars.
Sonoluminescence is a physical occurrence by which sound turns into light. Scientists have been trying for 70 years to explain it, but have had no success. No one has managed to explain how a bubble of air in water can focus sound to cause light, but it happens.
with thanks to humansarefree.com
September, 30 2013
Author Cliff Dunning:
“Historians tell us the oldest civilized cultures who developed the wheel are around 5,000 years old, and yet, new discoveries are continually pushing this date further back – WITHOUT our history books reflecting on the new information.
Generations of people still believe that the oldest organized civilizations are those that lived in the Middle East, parts of China and groups scattered throughout the world. Before 3,000 years – we are told that man lived in caves. Here is an example of the wheel, attached to a small toy car of some type that was found to be 7,500 years old. It is older than anything I have found in Central or South America that has wheels, and may have once been formed from clay, (and has turned to stone).”
According to the Culture and Tourism Director of Mardin, Davut Beliktay, stone dolls and whistles, were also found at sites in the area.
“We believe that the whistles and dolls are 5,000 to 6,000 years old. The whistles are still in working condition,” he said.
With thanks to Anna at http://www.learning-mind.com
Nov 26, 2013
Beetles that find their way by the stars, mice that live longer after a heart surgery when they listen to opera, and walking on water on other planets are among the funniest, or most unnecessary scientific research that were awarded with Ig Nobel Prizes this year, which are a kind of Nobel prizes for ‘mad scientists’.
Each winner will get $10 trillion Zimbabwe dollars, which unfortunately are only four dollars.
Ten Ig Nobel Prizes 2013 were awarded at the 23rd annual ceremony at the U.S. Harvard University, which is traditionally organized by the humorous journal «Annals of Improbable Research», according to the «New Scientist» and «British Guardian».
The Ig awards aim to highlight research and discoveries that “first make people laugh and then make them think.”
The Ig Prize in Astronomy and Biology was awarded to Eric Warrant and his team at the Swedish University of Lund for their discovery that the dung beetles find their way at night using the stars of our galaxy as a reference. The beetles not only push their dung balls in straight lines using the moon as a celestial “navigator”, but in moonless nights they use the light of distant stars. This discovery can help – as strange as it may sound – to design autonomous vehicles and robots.
The Medicine award was given to the Japanese Masanori Niimi, University of Tokyo, for the discovery that mice after the heart surgery live longer when they listen to particular music. While the mice normally die after seven days, but when listening to the opera “La Traviata” by Verdi, they live for 27 days and when listening to the Irish singer Enya, they live 11 days.
The Psychology award was given to Brad Bushman of the American University of Ohio for the discovery (or rather confirmation) that many people feel more attractive when they have drunk too much alcohol! “A drunk person thinks he/she is more attractive, but in reality he/she is not,” said Brad Bushman.
The Probability prize was given to a group of zoologists of the Scottish Agricultural College in Bert Tolkamp for the (shocking) discovery that the longer a cow is lying down, the more likely it is to get up soon and, secondly, that from the moment it stands up, no one can easily predict how soon it will lie down again.
The Physics award was taken by Alberto Minetti of the University of Milan for the study that concluded that people – thanks to the small gravity – will be likely to walk on lakes of liquid water on the Moon, but probably not on Mars.
The Engineering prize in the field of security was awarded to Gustano Pizzo for the invention of an electromechanical system that traps an airplane hijacker in a bag, throwing him automatically out of the plane.
The Chemistry prize was awarded to a Japanese research team led by Shinsuke Imai for the discovery that the biochemical processes that make people cry when cleaning onions are more complex than scientists thought until now.
The Peace award was given to the President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko, who has forbidden public applause in his country, and to the Belarus police, who arrested a one-armed man for applauding…
Shocking Study: Spontaneous Remission of Breast Cancer Found to be Common: Natural Society.
November 22nd, 2013
The people handing out mammogram and radiation prescriptions to ‘cure’ breast cancer probably don’t want you to know this about breast cancer: in numerous cases, it goes away all by itself. Radiation, the primary means, if not invasive surgery, to eradicate breast cancer works by killing off cells by exposing the DNA to ionizing radioactive waves. The problem is that this treatment also kills off healthy cells, and has even been shown to cause breast cancer. In a study published at Dartmouth Medical School Magazine, the ‘taboo’ subject of spontaneous remission is openly discussed.
One of the doctors who helped write up the findings, H. Gilbert Welch, M.D., M.P.H, made sure they were published in Archives of Internal Medicine. The study compared 100,000 Norwegian women ages 50 through 64 who were divided into two groups, with women in both groups having invasive cancers. Women in the first group were followed from 1992 to 1997, while women in the second group were followed from 1996 to 2001.
The women in the first group had only one screening, and the women in the second group had one every two years. Women in group 2 were exposed to an average of six more breast screenings via mammography. Interestingly, the incidence of invasive breast cancer was 22% higher for women in the second group (the ones more often screened with mammograms)! What this means is that when we just let the body heal itself without radiation-causing screenings, often, the cancer goes into remission all on its own.
Not surprisingly, the study has been criticized by the American Cancer Society: “Their simplification of a complicated issue is both overreaching and alarming.” Unfortunately, the words from the American Cancer Society can’t be trusted, as the organization is in bed with major cancer-drug making companies. For example, Big Pharma giant AstraZeneca has made multimillion dollar contributions to ACS, influencing just about everything that the ACS does. The ‘awareness’ raised focuses almost exclusively on mammography and doesn’t mention a word about carcinogenic foods, aluminum in deodorants, etc. There is no spoken word of breast cancer prevention via natural, inexpensive means, while touting the ‘cure’ of mammography and cancer drugs.
Simply allowing cancer to go into remission can be risky and definitely scary, though mainstream solutions may not be the answer. If you don’t want to expose yourself to radiation or invasive surgeries, take some time to look into natural alternatives. Just as individuals have reversed prostate cancer with something as simple as baking soda, reversing and preventing breast cancer could be as easy as turmeric supplementation or flax seed consumption.
The anthropological world was stunned when the recent genome study of the 24,000-year-old remains of a small Siberian boy revealed that the child was both part-Western European and modern Native American.
This turns on its head the long-held notion that those who first settled the Americas (themselves descendants of Siberian populations) were related to East Asians, as well as raising questions as to when the Americas were first settled – and by which peoples. New evidence gleaned from the three-year-old Mal’ta boy found near Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia shows that the ancient Native Americans could in fact be a mixture between West Europeans and an ancient East Asian people, according to a study published in the journal Nature on Wednesday.
The study demonstrates that as much as 30 percent of this brown-haired, freckled boy’s DNA can be found in modern Native Americans, which suggests that their modern population came directly from Siberia.
The boy’s body was discovered by Russian archaeologists in the 1920s, lying under a slab of rock, wearing ancient jewelry – an ivory diadem, a bird-shaped pendant and a bead necklace – all of which point to an Upper Paleolithic European culture. Some figurines were found at the site as well.
All of this was excavated by the scientists and studied for two decades, then subsequently stored in museums in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg).
But a team led by Danish ancient DNA expert, Eske Willersley, from the University of Copenhagen, recently got to work trying to find a direct connection between East Asia and the American Indians. The resulting research was published in the journal Nature on November 20.
Willersley set about extracting mitochondrial DNA from the boy’s arm, but was underwhelmed when it turned out to belong to the U lineage – which means modern Europeans who settled on the continent over 44,000 years ago. The lineages common to Native Americans are A, B, C, D and X.
But having analyzed the so-called nuclear genome, which carries more evidence of our ancestry, he told AFP that “the result came as a complete surprise to us.”
Firstly, the boy was from all over Europe: the two examined genomes show that modern Europeans had traveled much father into Eurasia than we had previously assumed.
Kelly Graf, an assistant professor at the Center for the Study of First Americans and Department of Anthropology at Texas A&M, who helped Willersley in his research, told Science Daily that the find “shows he had close genetic ties to today’s Native Americans and some western Eurasians… Also, he shared close genetic ties with other Ice-Age western Eurasians living in European Russia, Czech Republic and even Germany. We think these Ice-Age people were quite mobile and capable of maintaining a far-reaching gene pool that extended from central Siberia all the way west to central Europe.”
Secondly, the Native American connection was finally found.
“Our study proves that Native Americans’ ancestors migrated to the Americas from Siberia and not directly from Europe as some have recently suggested,” Graf said. This sort of intricate and complete DNA mapping of a human is the oldest of its kind ever performed.
However, given the boy’s European-Native-American mix, it was strange that the boy had no connection to modern East Asians. This has led Willersley and his team to suppose that the ancient Native Americans had already broken off ties with the East Asians before interbreeding with the Mal’ta people, to whom the boy belongs.
This population must then have traveled over the frozen Beringian land bridge that used to be between Siberia and Alaska. This consequently resulted in the creation of the modern Native Americans.
Intriguingly, even these new groundbreaking discoveries don’t fully solve all the remaining puzzles.
For one, ancient Native American skulls look more European than modern ones. And another one is that the X lineage found in modern Native Americans sometimes occurs in Europeans as well.
Also, the exact time and place of the mixing – whatever combination it was – cannot yet be determined. Likewise, the bigger question that this inevitably leads to is when the American continent was first settled.
They can be answered in time, but will require dipping into a much more ancient DNA pool. However, we now know that Siberia is an ancient treasure trove that holds the secrets to how Americans and Europeans interbred and settled thousands of years ago.
With thanks to Anna at http://www.learning-mind.com
Nov 20. 2013
The book “The Lost Symbol” by Dan Brown contains a chapter on some amazing experiments. According to the author, our soul is a material substance which can exist outside the body and can have weight. Therefore, it can be weighed. One of the characters in the book, Katherine Solomon, was able to weigh human soul. She placed a dying man (he had donated his body for scientific purposes) in an air-tight capsule, fitted with very sensitive micro weight detectors. While the man was alive, the scales showed a figure of 51, 4,534,644 kilograms. And after the old man’s death, the micro scales showed a decrease in the body weight. Brown does not specify this difference as a number, but makes a general comment: “This difference, though microscopic, is quite measurable.” This experiment allowed Brown to stipulate that the human soul does exist.
Dr. Duncan MacDougall from Haverhill (Massachusetts, USA), was the first scientist to conduct this kind of experiment in 1906, as reported by the New York Times on March 7, 1907. McDougall “detected” the change in the body weight when the person had died. The measurements were performed on a special bed, which was also a gigantic scale with high precision, and have shown that the “soul” weighs 22.4 grams. Another weight measurement of the “transient substance” was done almost 80 years later, in 1990, by another researcher – Lyell Watson from the University of New York. In his experiments, the deceased became 2.5 – 6.5 grams lighter. And almost identical results were obtained by Doctor of Science Eugenyus Kugis from the Institute of Semiconductors of the Lithuania Academy of Sciences in 2006. He found that at the time of death, the person loses between 3 to 7 grams of body weight.
It is not clear yet if the difference in weight can be attributed to the soul. But the question related to the existence of soul may be answered soon. The studies designed to prove the existence of soul have now been conducted in 25 clinics in the U.S., Canada and the UK. Dr. Sam Parnia is in charge of these experiments. He came up with an idea to test the hypothesis of human soul escaping the body after death, the phenomenon which has been persistently described by individuals who had experienced clinical death. The Doctor and his assistance place cards with written notes in intensive care wards, in places not visible to the patients from their beds, on the ceiling, for instance. The patient who becomes “dead” for a short duration, will need to read the words written on cards and then tell them to physicians. If the word is read and told correctly by one of the patients, then it is possible to say that an intelligent entity is separated from the body during death. And what else can it be but the human soul? The experiment will end at the end of 2013, and the separation of this intelligent entity from the body will be observed in 1,500 patients.
Russian scientist, the head of the intensive care unit and resuscitation, Nikolai Gubin said:
“My colleagues and I conducted experiments on mice to determine when and how the weight loss occurs when a living organism dies. Four newborn mice weighing 4 and 5 grams were injected with strychnine. After that, two of the mice were placed in the laboratory containers without lids. And the other two mice remained in tightly sealed special containers. When the mice were later weighed, it was found that the weight loss (meaning the “soul” separating from the body) occurred in the first two test subjects, which were dying in the open air. Their weight decreased by 3 and 6 mg. The mice, isolated from the outside world, had their weight unchanged. It turns out that this possible weight loss during the process of dying can be attributed to natural physical processes (water losses during respiration, heat and evaporation losses), and their effect on difference in body weight can be eliminated by sealing the test subjects undergoing the process of dying.”
In addition, it has been long known that a decrease in body weight can be recorded during sleep. In an experiment by Swiss scientists, 23 volunteers laid in bed, outfitted with ultra-sensitive scales and went to sleep. At the time when an individual transitioned from being awake to falling asleep, a weight loss between 4 and 6 grams had occurred.
By Emily Chung
Nov 14, 2013
A Canadian-led team of researchers has created a key component of a quantum computer that can survive at room temperature for a whopping 39 minutes, blowing away previous records of just seconds.
The discovery means it might be possible to store quantum bits of data, known as “qubits,” even at room temperature, for a practical length of time. That could bring previously science fiction-type ideas — including money that can’t be counterfeited — closer to reality. Quantum money, first proposed decades ago but still impossible to produce, would be protected by qubits that can’t be copied due to the laws of quantum physics.
Such ideas have been “really sort of pie in the sky because no one has a qubit that can last long enough,” said Mike Thewalt, a physics professor at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, B.C., who co-authored the paper published Thursday online in the journal Science.
But the results of experiments conducted in his lab show “that yeah, you can store quantum information for times that are much longer than people would have suspected… Half an hour at room temperature is pretty amazing.”
Previous room temperature survival records for various kinds of qubits made of solid materials such as silicon have ranged from two to 25 seconds.
Researchers are trying to develop quantum computers because they have the potential for exponentially greater computing power than conventional computers. That is because conventional computers encode data as “bits,” each of which is in one of two possible states, “0″ or “1,” while quantum computers encode data as “qubits” that can each be in multiple states simultaneously. That would allow them to perform multiple calculations as the same time.
The phenomenon of being in a “0″ and “1″ state simultaneously, known as “superposition,” is possible due to the strange laws of quantum physics that apply only to very small particles such as atoms that are used to create qubits.
Besides opening the possibility of storing quantum data, the results of the recent experiment suggest that it may one day be possible to build a practical, silicon-based computer that works at room temperature, said Stephanie Simmons, a physics research fellow at Oxford University, who co-authored the paper.
So far, in most experiments, qubits can only be preserved for any length of time when they are cooled to very cold temperatures — close to absolute zero — requiring bulky, cumbersome cooling equipment.
“Commercially it makes a lot more sense to sell something that you can put on a benchtop,” said Simmons, a Canadian who is originally from near Kitchener, Ont.
While people have also studied qubits made from gas or photons, solid materials such as silicon are promising for quantum computers because they could make use of the technology developed for silicon-based conventional computers.
Thewalt, Simmons, Simon Fraser University Ph.D. candidate Kamyar Saeedi and their colleagues created their qubits from phosophorus atoms embedded in a very pure silicon crystal by hitting them with magnetic pulses to induce superposition.
The process to prepare the phosphorus atoms to become qubits and to read the data out from them requires it to be cooled to very cold temperatures and for an electron to be added to each atom.
In previous experiments, the qubits lasted only seconds. But the researchers knew that the extra electrons were what was causing the qubits to fall out of their “superposed” state.
They decided to remove the electrons from the atoms using lasers before turning them into qubits, and then see how long they could make the superposition last.
The results were “better than we could have imagined,” Simmons said.
Not only did the qubits last a record amount of time at room temperature, but they lasted three whole hours at very cold temperatures, and even survived being warmed up and then cooled down again.
“This would be unheard of in almost any other system,” Simmons said.
Thewalt said the researchers were able to do what hasn’t been done before because regular silicon’s properties make it an ideal material for maintaining coherence. Other researchers have made their qubits from other materials.
While the experiment in Thewalt’s lab involved multiple phosphorus atoms, they were all put into the same state to make measurement easier, making them essentially “10 billion copies of one really, really good qubit,” Simmons said.
The next step for the researchers is to scale the system up to multiple qubits in a variety of different states.
Ideally, they also hope someone will find a way to read the data at room temperature so no cooling will be required at all.
Simmons said that is theoretically possible.
“It’s an engineering challenge rather than a physics challenge,” he said.
However, Thewalt said there is still a lot of work to be done before we see a practical, commercial silicon quantum computer.
“It’s not going to be something you can use tomorrow,” he added. “It’s just a step on the way.”
With thanks to Anna at http://www.learning-mind.com
Nov 12, 2013
Many theories about black holes that exist in space were developed over time. The prevailing opinion says that whatever falls into a black hole disappears forever and breaks apart into the component parts. However, a new theory states that black holes do not destroy the matter but rather are a kind of exit gates which lead in various parts of our universe or in other universes.
The new theory was developed by Jorge Pullin of the State University of Louisiana and Rodolfo Gambino of the University of the Republic of Uruguay. The two scientists decided to study the predictions of the theory of quantum gravity in black holes. More specifically, they applied the equations of quantum gravity in a non- rotating black hole with spherical symmetry.
As described in other theories, as the matter approaches the core of the black hole, the gravitational field becomes more and more powerful, but it does not disappear into a spacetime singularity as the prevailing theory states. According to the study results of the two researchers, the matter does not disappear in the middle of the hole but continues its way up the other end and gets from there in another universe or another location in our universe.
The idea that black holes are portals to other worlds rather than a place of absolute destruction is not new. But they all stumbled on the spacetime singularity. This is the first time when this barrier is bypassed with the help of scientific tools. The results of the study were published in the journal «Physical Review Letters».
The Raw Story.com
By Alok Jha,
Physics would have been “far more interesting” if scientists had been unable to find the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Cern, according to Stephen Hawking, who has admitted to losing a bet as a result of the discovery in July last year.
The world-famous cosmologist was speaking at an event to mark the launch of a new exhibit on the LHC at London’s Science Museum and, in a speech, discussing the unanswered questions at the edges of modern physics as part of a history of his own work in the field.
Though the Higgs boson was predicted by theory in the early 1960s, not everyone believed it would be found. If it had not been found, physicists would have had to go back to the drawing board and rethink many of their fundamental ideas about the nature of particles and forces – an exciting prospect for some scientists.
“Physics would be far more interesting if it had not been found,” said Hawking. “A few weeks ago, Peter Higgs and François Englert shared the Nobel Prize for their work on the boson and they richly deserved it. Congratulations to them both. But the discovery of the new particle came at a personal cost. I had a bet with Gordon Kane of Michigan University that the Higgs particle wouldn’t be found. The Nobel Prize cost me $100.”
Hawking hoped the LHC would now move on from the Higgs boson to looking for evidence of more fundamental theories that explain the nature universe and, in particular, he hoped it would find the first evidence for the M theory, which is the best candidate that physicists have to unify all the four fundamental forces of nature. It unites gravity (which rules at the largest scales of the universe) with quantum mechanics (which controls the behaviour atoms and below). As yet there has been no incontrovertible experimental evidence to show that M theory is correct.
“There is still hope that we see the first evidence for M theory at the LHC particle accelerator in Geneva,” said Hawking. “From an M theory perspective, the collider only probes low energies, but we might be lucky and see a weaker signal of fundamental theory, such as supersymmetry. I think the discovery of supersymmetric partners for the known particles would revolutionise our understanding of the universe.”
Supersymmetry is the concept that each known particle – such as electrons, quarks and photons – has a heavier and as-yet-undetected “superpartner”. The superpartners of quarks and electrons, for example, are called squarks and selectrons; the superpartners of the Higgs, and of force carriers such as the photon, are the higgsino and photino. Experimental evidence for the idea has, however, been elusive.
In recalling the bet he made with physicist Gordon Kane about the Higgs boson, Hawking admitted to enjoying gambling. “Throughout my life, I have had a gambling problem. When I was 12, one of my friends bet another friend a bag of sweets that I would never come to anything. I don’t know if this bet was ever settled, and if so, which way it was decided. I had six or seven close friends, and we used to have long discussions and arguments about everything, from radio-controlled models to religion. One of the things we talked about was the origin of the universe, and whether it required a God to create it and set it going.”
Hawking is no stranger to losing bets about the nature of cosmos. Along with Kip Thorne, he bet John Preskill that information should be destroyed when something fell into a black hole. The so-called “information paradox” was troubling because Hawking’s calculations suggested that anything that fell into a black hole would be obliterated, including the information about what that stuff was. But destroying information is not allowed under the rules of quantum mechanics.
After 30 years of arguing, Hawking said he eventually found a resolution. “Information is not lost in black holes, but it is not returned in a useful way,” he said. “It is like burning an encyclopaedia. Information is not lost, but it is very hard to read.”
He gave Preskill a baseball encyclopaedia to concede his side of the bet. “Maybe I should have just given him the ashes. The fact that I used to think that information was destroyed in black holes was my biggest blunder. Well, at least it was my biggest blunder in science.”
Many of Hawking’s insights have come from studying the cosmos, and the scientist said people needed to get more interested in the space around us for more prosaic reasons. “We must also continue to go into space for the future of humanity. I don’t think we will survive another thousand years without escaping beyond our fragile planet. I therefore want to encourage public interest in space, and I’ve been getting my training in early,” he said. Hawking recently took part in a zero-gravity flight, which is part of the training for astronauts to experience the weightlessness of space.
Hawking said that the recent Nobel prize for Engelert and Higgs had been a reminder to him that it was “a glorious time to be alive, and doing research in theoretical physics. Our picture of the universe has changed a great deal in the last 50 years, and I’m happy if I have made a small contribution.”
He added: “So remember to look up at the stars and not down at your feet. Try to make sense of what you see and hold on to that childlike wonder about what makes the universe exist.”